‘Why do women go out at night?’

This title i gave for my blog of today is all because today morning i got to read a newspaper headline asking this that ‘why do women go out at night?’ . I am really shocked and i would like to ask the person this same question in a different manner that is ‘WHY DO WHO HAS GOT BAD INTENTIONS TOWARDS WOMEN GO OUT AT NIGHT? ‘ . How is my question mr. X whoever threw the question to women. I would also like to say that i feel very sorry to know that some people do not know why do girls go out. Because of you male(some ),who thinks its easy to dominate women. Women has gone through much of male domination now no more of it they will tolerate.  To get rid of it, and be independent they go out. They are not mad or purposeless that they will roam about at night. Every girl nowadays are educated. I think the male who cant take this improvement, flourishments in womens does this kind of downright work by molesting, teasing, harrasing women out on streets, in institution, at workplace,at home. For some male, now women loose trust on other males who has got good intentions towards women, respects them. Thank you to those male who supports, respects women. Those ‘so called male’ do some good work in life, so that after you die and go to heaven you xan atleast answer to God that yes other than harrasing women, you did something useful. Before pointing towards women, harrasing women think about your mother, sister you have at home. If the same incident happens to your mother or sister you will be seen protesting and afterwards the next night you will be seen harrasing a girl. Girls wont stop going out, its you male stop harrasing them. Better do something purposeful in life.  

Thank you . 

Advertisements

WOMEN AND LABOUR MARKET 

Today, i will discuss about the proposals used to end discrimination against women in the labour market. Women must be freed from domestic burdens or share them equally with men if they are to compete for jobs on equal terms. An end to discrimination in the labour market would also involve the abolition of sexual division of labour, the removal of distinctions between ‘men’s jobs’ and ‘women’s jobs’ . The failure of women’s entry into the labour market to end sexual division of labour there has led some writers to suggest that women as a group must gain control over a significant part if the forces of production in order to remove discrimination.  Women’s capitalism has made tentative beginnings in America with the founding of several women’s banks. However atleast one has gone out of business and women’s capitalism remains a blueprint. Many feminist writers rejects women’s capitalism as a goal in itself  . They argue that it will simply result in equality of exploitation; most men and women will be equally exploited. 

Thank you.  

A SOCIETY WITHOUT CRIME ?

From a Marxian perspective the basis of crime is the private ownership of the the forces of production and all that entails. Thus a socialist society, in which the forces of production are communally owned, should result in a large reduction of many forms of crime. In theory, individual gain and self-interest should be largely replaced by collective responsibilty and concern. There is some evidence to suggest that societies which have moved further along the road to socialism than the USA, have a lower crime rate. Though the evidence is shaky and the arguments speculative. 

The crime rate in Western Europe is lower than that of USA. For example there are more murders in a few months in New York than in England during a whole year. ‘Street crime’is largely an American  phenomenon despite the apparent rise is mugging in European cities. The difference in the crime rate is due in part to the following factors. Firstly, the welfare benefits provided to the poor in Western Europe are considerably more extensive than those available in America. Secondly, compared to the USA there is higher working – class interests are also represented by socialist political parties in particularly every advanced capitalist industrial society with the exception of the USA. Such organizations provide means for constructively channeling working class protest. The application of Marxian theory to the study of deviance became increasingly popular during 1970s.  It promised to provide more comprehensive explanation than previous. Thus is offered explanation not only for the origins of crime and deviance but also for the nature of law and law enforcement and definitions of non-criminal deviance. 
Thank you.  



CHILD ABUSE 

In its most general sense, child abuse refers to the maltreatment or injury of a child by an adult or adults. Such abuse can be physical, emotional, sexual or a combination of all three. It might be perpetrated by one person or by several, withinin a family or outside it, and in public or in private. Child abuse is widely acknowledged as causing severe emotional and psychological damage to victims, damage that because of widespread imposition of secrecy by abusers, sometimes does not become manifest for many years. In this broad sense it points to an abuse of ‘power’ between different age groups. Historical evidence shows clearly tst child abuse of all kinds has excisted for centuries.

It is useful to differentiate physical abuse of children – child abuse or baby battering – from child sexual abuse. Baby battering became an issue of widespread concern and the basis of a ‘moral panic’. R and C. Kempe in the USA saw it as indicative of ‘dysfunctional ‘ families. Later investigation found that baby battering, as well as physical violence  within families generally, was strongly associated with families living in poverty, although some contend that middle – class family violence is simply kept more hidden and secretive. Most victims are girls, though boys are also abused. The majority of the abusers are men, although there is evidence that a very small proportion of women also abuse children sexually. Collecting reliable data is difficult and many cases are not reported or left unnoticed. There are three main models of child sexual abuse. The psychological model, which is concerned primarily with male offenders, sees the perpetrators as suffering from personality disorder. This model disregards the victims and the social context in which abuse occurs. Familes where abuse takes place is seen as ‘dysfunctional ‘. This view presupposes such a thing as a normal family and implicitly labels families that do not appear to be normal as pathological or deviant.  The feminist model regards sexual abuse as an aspect of a wider power system of male dominance over women and children and integral part of which is male violence. Such a model shows inequality in general, particularly abuse of power between age groups and presupposes different forms of invention, but it does not offer any obvious solution for the minority of women who abuse children 

Thank you.  

AFFECTIVE INDIVIDUALISM 

A change in family life, said to have accompanied the demographic, industrial and capitalist revolutions that occurred in 18 th century England, and has since bern experienced widely in other modernized and modernizing countries. The term affective individualism describes the formation of ‘marriage ties on the basis of personal attraction, guided by norms of romantic attachment rather than being arranged by parents. 

A number of authorities (including L.Stone,The Family, Sex, and Marriage in England, 1977) have argued that the 18 th century saw a revolution in familial norms. Hitherto, families(even nuclear families) were deeply embedded in a wide network of community involvements (including close relationships with other kin), so that family was not a major focus of emotional attachment and dependance for its members. Among other things, therefore, sex was instrumental (necessary to propagate children) rather than a source of pleasure; as indeed was marriage itself (which was undertaken for economic or political reasons, rather tgan feelings of romantic attraction). For reasons connected with ‘industrialization (the precise casuality varies between accounts), this form of family life gave way rapidly toh the ‘closed domesticated nuclear form’, characterized by intimate emotional or affective bonds, domestic privacy, a preoccupation with love and with rearing of children for expressive rather than instrumental reasons.  By extension,this process is said to have accompanied the spread of ‘capitalism and industrialization’ throughout the globe. The theory of affective individualism as an invention of modern societies has been strongly challenged – most notably by Alan Macfarlane mainly on the grounds that it posits as revolutionary a series of changes that were incremental and long pre-dated the processes of industrialization. 

Thank you.